Here's Why Being "Fashionable" Is a Pretty Modern Concept

Pubblicato il 13 ott 2020
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Karolina Żebrowska
  • Tyler Campbell

    Tyler Campbell

    3 giorni fa

    You should make a video about women’s fashion in the Middle East. I know a lot of them follow strict dress code, but I figure there must be some way that they alter their outfits to follow a specific trend. It’d be interesting to learn about and see a video on

  • Denver C.

    Denver C.

    7 giorni fa

    Poor, poor Janet Jackson...

  • moonnightwalk


    9 giorni fa

    actually, fashion is still regional, I experienced it firsthand, as I lived in the US and then returned home in a developing country. I raised eyebrows on both sides upon arrival and gradually blended in as my clothes were getting old/tight and replaced from what was offered at the place I was living. Also, I still love some brands I used to buy in the US, but buying them is a hassle, takes a long time, and also I can afford to go to a tailor now, so my wardrobe is different again - even as I don't care about blending in now. Basically to be fashionably cosmopolitan, one has to be able to regulary visit the places that dictate the modern fashion. Shopping online and following street fashion online won't give you the feeling of what is the real fashion for real people. That means you have to have money and time to do that - and this is a marker of a certain social class.

  • James Le Page

    James Le Page

    10 giorni fa

    You were right when you spoke about the late sixties. I'm pleased to say that I partook in the new trends coming from Great Britain, Germany, and Italy. It was very exciting. Many parents/adults questioned these trends but, I'm pleased to say many enjoyed and embraced them as well. Vicariously, yes, but still showed an interest in the new fashions and trends. I believe that no matter what time one lived in there were individuals that appreciated taken the extra time to grooming themselves. Even if it was to just add an extra button.

  • Something cool like 'Beat Vengeance'

    Something cool like 'Beat Vengeance'

    10 giorni fa

    Future people will wear plastic wrap and need no mans(laws)
    Or it could be very dystopian idk

  • tomatoribs


    10 giorni fa

    I loved this video so much, I think this is really important to talk about! Would you happen to still have the resources you used for this (if you had any specific ones), and might you be willing to share them? I'm currently doing my bachelor's thesis on the relationship of clothing and social identity in our current times, and I've been searching for good references in history to reflect upon. I'm concentrating on European fashion/dress history, so if anyone in the comments also has any recommendations I'd happily hear them! :)

  • calicolyon


    15 giorni fa

    A few years ago I took my mom out shopping because my grandmother was more in style than she was. I got her to buy a few things that looked great on her and was appropriate for her age not her mom's.

  • Rino PW

    Rino PW

    19 giorni fa

    The last frame lol

  • John Keck

    John Keck

    20 giorni fa

    It would be interesting to compare the respective mentalities behind the timescales of fashion changes. The new, boundary-pushing mentality toward fashion had a shorter timescale. But did the older, conformist mentality remain linked to the longer timescales characteristic of past fashion?

  • Tushar Mulchandani

    Tushar Mulchandani

    21 giorno fa

    0:44 Imagine dripping so hard you get arrested

  • Kate FX

    Kate FX

    21 giorno fa

    Granny gowns in the 1970s. The USA's first lady Hillary Clinton wore a granny gown for her wedding. I don't know if you had that where you are, but we all had at least one granny gown dress.

  • JoshKimchee


    22 giorni fa

    For anyone wondering, the music in the background is
    Arabesque no. 1 by Claude Debussy

  • K R

    K R

    22 giorni fa

    In the Victorian Era, rules were important. Rule-following was important. What the majority thought and cared about was important. Dressing in fashion was an overt way of showing that you knew what the rules and expectations were, not just in dress, but in life. A well-dressed woman didn't just select the approved silhouette-- she picked the approved colors, the right fabrics and embellishments for her "station" and age, the right everything, and by so doing she signaled that she was a safe person to bring into your social circles, because she knew her place.

  • murdy bum

    murdy bum

    25 giorni fa

    i loved it, you are like our teacher

  • Judi Sutherland

    Judi Sutherland

    25 giorni fa

    There must be a PhD in ‘The origins of Vintage Fashion - wearing retro style in the 1970s - motivation and semiotics’.

  • Danielle Groves

    Danielle Groves

    29 giorni fa

    When she says "What was fashionable in one country doesn't mean it's fashionable in another" (Bad at paraphrasing) Did anyone else think of Henry the 8th poor Germanic wife.
    Or how Queen Elizabeth 1 made a law that every 'unfashionable (poor)' person must wear a wool hat on sundays...No I am the only one with Tudor's on the brain ok sorry lol.

  • aaron helton

    aaron helton

    Mese fa

    'Deborah what are you wearing?"

  • Sarah Bent

    Sarah Bent

    Mese fa

    Re: wearing vintage clothes. The other reason that it wasn't common in the past was because of the habit of doing over dresses, and having a valid way to sell your clothes on. Therefore there weren't a lot of vintage clothes sitting around waiting to be bought and worn.

  • Con Lon

    Con Lon

    Mese fa

    Cool I love it really so much you are so amazing

  • Sarah Holley

    Sarah Holley

    Mese fa

    is that Debussy in the background i hear?

  • Loren Wood

    Loren Wood

    Mese fa

    It’s a shame you didn’t mention anything about men’s fashion

    • LTH


      24 giorni fa

      Men cared more about fashion for most of history and menswear basically stopped evolving after ww1.

  • Staci Lyn

    Staci Lyn

    Mese fa

    ah the lipstick smudge of knowledge

  • sergeigen1


    Mese fa

    This whole video, she is just describing tokyo

  • Alejandra Pinto

    Alejandra Pinto

    Mese fa

    How insane is it that poor people back then could afford to follow fashion somehow yet poor people today can barely afford getting dressed at all

  • Naturallyashley86


    Mese fa

    "Debrah what are you wearing?" LOL

  • Catherine DePrez

    Catherine DePrez

    Mese fa

    "No matter what women do, there would always be someone criticizing it"
    ^ Oh look, things that seem to stay the same forever...
    Love Karolina's look for this video though! You've Got It Meme Mom!

  • Sayuri Rimal

    Sayuri Rimal

    Mese fa

    You are a goddess!!!!

  • Jody Diou

    Jody Diou

    Mese fa


  • Liam Wiesenberger

    Liam Wiesenberger

    Mese fa

    did mens fashion follow a similar timeline as womens fashion in this regard?

  • Skirted Galleons

    Skirted Galleons

    Mese fa

    "Debra, what are you wearing?" lololol Excellent video, thanks!

  • Maira Bay

    Maira Bay

    Mese fa

    Having grown up in the 90s, I kind of disagree with the idea that people nowadays dress "historically accurate" clothes from the recent decades. I can't speak for other decades, but *I cringe* when I see kids these days saying they are dressing "grunge style" while wearing torn skinny pants and a fitted top underneath a flannel shirt. In the 90s everybody wore baggy clothes: baggy jeans, lose-fitting shirts, baggy shorts, etc. I know because I was there. I hung out with a lot of punk and skateboarding crowd, and I can tell you, there was nothing thight fitting about that fashion. Everything was big and baggy!

  • Jana Ville

    Jana Ville

    Mese fa

    I'd love to see a video about the people who changed the course of fashion!!

  • jenniewilliamsmural


    2 mesi fa

    I was one of those 1970s vintage loving freaks. My grandmother was appalled, esp with my choice of black - the color of old age and mourning.
    You are a Bomblette.
    Warmest regards

  • Andrew Smith

    Andrew Smith

    2 mesi fa

    I just never try to be fashionable. I realised my favourite outfit is a singlet with a waistcoat. Is it fashionable? No. I look like a circus employee but I love it.

  • Irene Minel

    Irene Minel

    2 mesi fa

    The novel that you talk about "The Age of Innocence", was adapted to film by Martin Scorsese. I know nothing about historical accuracy, but the movie is beautifully done. If you haven't seen it, I truly recommend it.

  • thedemonnemo


    2 mesi fa

    The term boobage in a Polish accent is
    truely "wspaniały"!

  • cookablecookie


    2 mesi fa

    Karolina: "if something as small as a wardrobe malfunction could kill your social life..."
    Janet Jackson: *glares*

  • Christian Ureña

    Christian Ureña

    2 mesi fa

    I was so focused paying attention to Karolina until I saw the caption of the video and laugh so hard I missed like 5 entire minutes

  • The Noobest Girl

    The Noobest Girl

    2 mesi fa

    Some French aristocrat: Debra what are you wearing?! 😱🤢
    Debra, just doing her thing: 🤟👁️👄👁️🖕

  • Nedislava Degrade

    Nedislava Degrade

    2 mesi fa

    Oh,'re disgusting! :D

  • duo, the owl

    duo, the owl

    2 mesi fa

    You teach me better than my history teacher lmao

  • FannomacritaireSuomi


    2 mesi fa

    The beginning of the video would be very accurate for languages too. The high status people had to learn Greek and Latin, meanwhile the rest could stick to their maternal language, there was hella lot of linguistic variety in Europe back then but from the 19th century on it became more apparent that a nation should opt for one language only. And thus we lost all of the basic pillars of language, architecture, fashion, art... Pretty much the entire culture. Sorry for interrupting tho.

  • Black Rose

    Black Rose

    2 mesi fa

    Fashionable sounds like it means trendy by when you said "you would adjust the skirt to make it more fashionable"

  • Ewcix


    2 mesi fa

    Powiedziałaś, że szczególnie w XIXw. istotne było przestrzeganie etykiety. Czy to znaczy, ze wcześniej nie aż tak? Przy okazji- czy sa jakieś interesujące lektury poruszające ten temat?

  • Sigourney Di Blasi

    Sigourney Di Blasi

    2 mesi fa

    I'm going to share my little knowledge about this. I'm from a small kingdom part of Spanish kingdom. Until some decades ago, what people could were was ruled by Petrucios (old people of the village). It's a very populated area, with loads of water, so there are small villages all around. Until the war (Spanish civil war 1936-1939) only burguesy and nobles wore 'á la mode' fashion, villagers and peasants wore the same thing that kind of people wore in XVI century, only with very small details changing like some accesories. In fact, their earrings were the same style as they were in medieval times, and some even older to that. It's somehow the same silhouette and paesant fashion as in all Europe (skirts tied to the waist to help the weight and to occult the pregnancy, linen and hemp shirts, wool panties, some form of stays) what make the difference was the upper graments (on my parts they used to wear a capelette crossed in the front, on top of the 'justillo', while in other parts of Europe they wore a more 'external' vest on top of the vest).

  • reallifelove


    2 mesi fa

    and here we are in COVID times when there is no use for fashion at all, and the last video I watched was literally titled "I put on pants today la la la" (credit to Julie Nolke). Oh and God forbid we blend in, that would spread pandemic (what was that about the tiniest speck ruining someone's life?)

  • Matxalen C

    Matxalen C

    2 mesi fa

    When you say "adjust the skirt," would they cut the fabric out or leave it in for easier adjustments for later?

  • my. dumpling

    my. dumpling

    2 mesi fa

    reagency ladies were history bounding 2 centuries ago

    • LTH


      24 giorni fa

      Once you start to think about it everything is history bounding.

  • The weirdly friendly Mushroom

    The weirdly friendly Mushroom

    2 mesi fa

    "Before of that you would wear so many pigeons out of nowhere"
    Now this is a fashion world I want to see

  • Eric Velez

    Eric Velez

    2 mesi fa

    Yea! What is Deborah wearing? I’m glad someone finally said it.

  • Benjamin Acuna

    Benjamin Acuna

    2 mesi fa

    Regional fashions and trends have always been fascinating and the idea of keeping regional fashion seems to be making a resurgence like the rise in “street” fashion becoming more and more trendy

  • Amour Toujours

    Amour Toujours

    2 mesi fa

    My fashion style is me. A melange of so many different styles. Some days I feel goth. Some days, bohemian. Some days, chic. Other days, girl next door. And sometimes sporty. Classique.
    All labels labels labels. Which have no use since I don't plan to put myself in a box.

  • FilbieTron


    2 mesi fa

    Can you talk about historial androgynous fashion or mens' fashion??

  • ioan jones

    ioan jones

    2 mesi fa

    Debra...WHAT ARE YOU WEARING?!?!

  • agcupcakestudioss


    2 mesi fa

    Biba brought a deco revival in the 70s with 30s and sometimes 20 and 40s clothes and Pamela Des barres and music groupies were doing vintage styles inn the 60s because they were more feminine and luxurious and delicate than the styles of the time but they also maintained a modern siliuette

  • True Course

    True Course

    2 mesi fa

    Thank you for existing. Dzienkuje

  • Oded Kedem

    Oded Kedem

    2 mesi fa

    Regarding wearing old stuff: it was a general trend, that whatever had been fashionable for the elite had BECOME fashionable for the commons about a generation later.
    For example, take the traditional clothing of the ULTRA-orthodox Jews for the past 350~400 years (or so) - ORIGINALLY, it was the dressing of the Polish nobility, the Szlachta, in around 1,600 (or so?) I think - and, a few decades afterwards, once they had already pretty much abandoned it, perhaps? (not so sure about it...), the Jews at Poland-Lithuania took it and made it their own style.

  • LadyNikitaShark


    2 mesi fa

    The dean of the uni I went was an historian and made obligatory for all degrees to have two semesters of history, one for world history and one for the history of the degree a person is specializing in. This video just reminds me of him lol

  • Ed Livingston

    Ed Livingston

    2 mesi fa

    U R very pretty!

  • Miranda Khoury

    Miranda Khoury

    3 mesi fa

    "The Age of Innocence" by Edith Wharton is such a good book! cool that you're reading it

  • Stephanie SLC84 Cobban

    Stephanie SLC84 Cobban

    3 mesi fa

    I so enjoy your content 🙏 Thank you for creating 💜

  • Dana Capponi

    Dana Capponi

    3 mesi fa

    2:02 worry not, this can still be achieved by wearing a cool fit and visiting your parents

  • Jo Lilly

    Jo Lilly

    3 mesi fa

    day one of asking for a video about old costumes and dressing up (halloween etc.)

  • Jo Lilly

    Jo Lilly

    3 mesi fa

    "suddenly the teenagers were fashionable and everyone else felt left behind because they didn't belong to the secret fashion club"
    *painful memories Karolina?"*

  • Jo Lilly

    Jo Lilly

    3 mesi fa

    "debora what are you wearing" lmaooo

  • Mark Hines

    Mark Hines

    3 mesi fa

    You're beautiful carolina, are youarried?

  • Fredrika Jacobsson

    Fredrika Jacobsson

    3 mesi fa

    Back then the drive to update your wardrobe and adhere to current fashion trends was mainly rooted in the desire to conform to civil society and secure your place in it. In those days your appearance suggested a great deal about your character and certainly played a role in where you'd end up in the world, especially as a female. We still see these cultural attitudes echoed in modern society today.

  • clairvaux


    3 mesi fa

    "No matter what women did, there would be someone criticising them."
    Everyone felt that. Shoutout to the boys who would go "does she think she's going on a fashion show?" when I dressed nice and the boys who would chastise me like "why do you always wear so short?" when I dressed like a slob. They're the sort of people whom if I found fallen into a ditch, I would not help them up 😌

  • pianobooks42


    3 mesi fa

    This is super helpful for me as an author/illustrator! I definitely didn’t understand the different meaning of fashion and wrote inaccurate character choices based on that. Thanks for explaining this clearly!

  • glypnir


    3 mesi fa

    I think the basic imperatives of fashion are still the same. It seems to me that the biggest modern difference is that clothes are so much cheaper to make, so there are just so many options. People used to have very few sets of clothes, so they had to select very conservatively. Now it’s like, whatever dude.

    • glypnir


      3 mesi fa

      @Countries To Go I agree that we should pay the people who make our clothes a livable wage and decent working hours. But I think that there are huge amounts of automation for much of the construction of clothes. Almost no one is planting, picking, cleaning, dyeing, spinning, weaving, or embroidering cotton by hand. Processing of other natural fibers is similarly automated, and synthetic fibers are even easier. Much cutting is now done automatically, and some sewing. Certainly very little sewing is done by hand - it's all done with sewing machines. Same for knitting, although it's a hobby for some. Women used to spend much or their time on many of these tasks everywhere, and produce much less.

    • Countries To Go

      Countries To Go

      3 mesi fa

      It would actually cost almost the same now as it did back then if we paid the people who made our clothes a livable wage and decent working hours.

  • kristinheatherstar


    3 mesi fa

    It’s yet another distraction for women. Like being shaved from eyelashes down, annoying! Cute content...

  • Kelly Bromfield

    Kelly Bromfield

    3 mesi fa

    "I love fashion history!" - me laying on my couch in leggings and a giant sweatshirt knowing that I have worn "public" clothing less than 15 times since March. Thanks COVID.

  • Frat Guide

    Frat Guide

    3 mesi fa

    I like that Karolina is a Fashionable Historian as well as a Fashion Historian. I like that these videos ask us to think critically about the past and remove our assumptions

  • David Pavlas

    David Pavlas

    3 mesi fa


  • The Hardins

    The Hardins

    3 mesi fa

    Midevil royalties way of preventing someone from wearing the same dress as them.

  • littlepinkskeleton


    3 mesi fa

    Does anyone know the origin of the red dress shown at 9:18? Or at least what I should Google so I can save the picture?

  • Demera


    3 mesi fa

    You know, this video convinced me that being fashionable isn’t a modern concept at all 😅

  • Bubbly Emma

    Bubbly Emma

    3 mesi fa

    I looove these historic videos

  • Tania Perez

    Tania Perez

    3 mesi fa


  • slappy burrito

    slappy burrito

    3 mesi fa

    pesky intrusive pigeons

  • Carol Koski

    Carol Koski

    3 mesi fa

    4:00 Karolina talking about how poor people could be fashionable AND not spend money doing so by fixing and adjusting their old dresses is one of the many reasons why I don't like the new Little Women movie.
    The book has entire PASSAGES about them fixing their old dresses, about Meg adjusting her plain dress to wear it for parties she would go to but noooo let's get them a new dress for every day of the week no one will notice

  • thirty someting mama thirty something mama

    thirty someting mama thirty something mama

    3 mesi fa

    PREACH!! Karolinko:)

  • Alexa B

    Alexa B

    3 mesi fa

    dEbOrAh WhAt ArE yOu WeArInG?!?!?!?!

  • Restless Bear

    Restless Bear

    3 mesi fa

    I am a woman. I guess I don’t really wear vintage. Or do I? Since I wear men’s vintage clothing and it’s modern for women to wear masculine clothing? I’m a bit confused lmao.

  • Mindy Moyer

    Mindy Moyer

    3 mesi fa

    I love you outfit!! Yellow looks great on you!

  • Axel Lisenstain

    Axel Lisenstain

    3 mesi fa

    Here's me before starting the vid: wasn't most of humanity poor af for the longest time and that's pretty all that's about to be said?

    • Axel Lisenstain

      Axel Lisenstain

      3 mesi fa

      And finally here's me after the vid: yeah I'm a fool, fascinating stuff as always. There's plenty of places where you can feel the echoes of that mentality though, the corporate culture of looking sameish to everyone else but not outdated comes to mind.

    • Axel Lisenstain

      Axel Lisenstain

      3 mesi fa

      Here's me in the middle of the vid: boobage

  • Valerie Vivian

    Valerie Vivian

    3 mesi fa

    Another reason for older women not bothering with fashion, according to my 80+ year old grandma: "I'm so old, who is going to dare scold me for not being fashionable?"
    Her entire wardrobe is baggy blouses and long, baggy pants, 100% Chinese grandma who ran out of fucks to give in her 60s and hasn't recovered them since.

  • Julia Wilson

    Julia Wilson

    3 mesi fa

    this is fascinating because similarly with furniture and architecture, "trends" didn't really become super popular until the middle class gained more ground and demanded status among the aristocrats. and also similarly - furniture/interior designs looked back on notable styles such as the renaissance, grecian, rococo, etc too when manufacturing and the industrial revolution (circa mid 19th century) came around, anywho, food for thought

  • Artemis Rosewood

    Artemis Rosewood

    3 mesi fa

    thank u for this vid!!! i rlly enjoyed watching it

  • greenghost2008_Progressive


    3 mesi fa

    Aunt vibes

  • Mikaela


    3 mesi fa

    can we get a room tour of ur beautifully antique/vintage bedroom?

  • ಠ_ʖಠ


    3 mesi fa

    Your outfit is like candy to my eyes
    Yellow is amazing

  • Kimberly Perrotis

    Kimberly Perrotis

    3 mesi fa

    Make a new film: Deborah and Karolina, fashion-savvy time travellers.

  • Kimberly Perrotis

    Kimberly Perrotis

    3 mesi fa

    I think the reason older women (like me, 60), have generally tended to wear outdated fashions is that we cling to the look of the era where we feel we were at our best. Like today, it’s almost impossible to get women, say 50 and up, to try any current cut of jeans or trousers, they insist on skin-tight skinnies and nothing else. Skinnies were in style for almost 20 years, when we were in our 30s-40s. Personally, I couldn’t wait to get into the new, looser styles, but they sell out overnight! I finally got a pair of girlfriends, then I went back to order a second wash an hour later, and every color and size were sold out. But, it’s younger women who are buying them, mostly.

  • Kimberly Perrotis

    Kimberly Perrotis

    3 mesi fa

    What the 99% got to wear throughout most of European history: coarse-woven wool, brown or gray. This is even before linen undergarments were widely worn. If you bought a new dress, or “suit” of clothes for men every year, your local lord would raise your taxes or throw you in his dungeon, and your community would accuse you of getting the money for it through: witchcraft, prostitution, theft, etc. 2020 might suck, but a lot of things are better - dental anesthetics for one.

  • Paulina S

    Paulina S

    3 mesi fa

    D e B R a W A T A r E Y o U W e A R i N G ! ?

  • Alice State

    Alice State

    3 mesi fa

    Karolina, or anyone in the know, I wonder if in past eras ‘wearing vintage’ was a thing. If you wanted to, for personal stylistic purposes, could a girl (with money, I suppose) in the 1890s, for example, choose to wear a dress from the 1860s? Or earlier? Such as how we now in the twenty first century wear vintage from past eras?

  • Crowfaerylaura


    3 mesi fa

    Really fascinating to learn! Thanks!

  • Ariel Pippin

    Ariel Pippin

    4 mesi fa

    Anyone have any *podcast* suggestions that talk about historical fashion or renaissance history?

  • Rylin Mariel

    Rylin Mariel

    4 mesi fa

    Some more detailed trivia about sumptuary laws throughout history:
    The earliest sumptuary laws known historically were from the 7th century BC in Greece. This code (written by Zaleucus, who was the Greek lawgiver of Epizephyrian Locri), had to be at least somewhat tongue-in-cheek:
    "A free-born woman may not be accompanied by more than one female slave, unless she is drunk; she may not leave the city during the night, unless she is planning to commit adultery; she may not wear gold jewelry or a garment with a purple border, unless she is a courtesan; and a husband may not wear a gold-studded ring or a cloak of Milesian fashion unless he is bent upon prostitution or adultery."
    In other words, you were not to violate these laws unless you were someone who would be considered reprehensible by the rest of society!

    In the early years of the Roman Empire, the "Sumptuariae Leges" forbade the wearing of silk, and the use of Tyrian Purple dye on your clothing, among other restrictions (One common misconception, when people mention that royal purple is outlawed except for the regents of a land, or in popular depictions in (relatively more) modern artwork depicting royalty, concerns what color is meant when people say "royal purple". It is frequently depicted as a true chromatic purple - ie, the same color as a violet (flower). In fact, Tyrian Purple was more a reddish purple shade. other sumptuary laws followed. Laws were passed that listed how many different colors could be worn by members of different social classes: peasants could wear one color, soldiers in the army could wear two colors, army officers could wear three colors, and members of the royal family could wear seven colors.
    It was not until the 1300s, when national governments had been established in France and England and city-states formed in Italy, that sumptuary laws appear in any number in the rest of Europe. In 1322 Florence forbade the wearing of silk and scarlet cloth by its citizens outside their houses. In 1366 Perugia banned the wearing of velvet, silk, and satin within its boundaries.
    A Statute Concerning Diet and Apparel was a sumptuary law introduced by the Parliament of England in 1363. It was enacted to was combat a growing trend among non-aristocracy, triggered by the sudden increase in personal wealth which followed the Black Death, the consolidation of property, because of the decrease in population and the rise in wages which liberated many formerly bonded labourers.
    In 1574 Queen Elizabeth I enforced some new Sumptuary Laws called the "Statutes of Apparel", which dictated what color and type of clothing individuals were allowed to own and wear - an easy and obvious way, of course, to identify rank and privilege. By the early 1500's France, Holland and Germany had begun growing dye plants as an industry - contributing to the "unnecessary foreign wares" Elizabeth objected to being imported to England, which was one of the reasons she gave for her Sumptuary Law. Some other words and terms she used included "excess", "superfluity", "extremity", "manifest decay", "vain devices", "unlawful acts", and "decay of the wealth of the realm". Gold, silver, scarlet, indigo, violet, black, pure white and bright yellow were only for the highest nobility, and they were allowed to wear silk, fur, velvet and lace. The lower classes could wear pale yellow, russet, orange, green, pale blue, pink, and off-white, and only in fabrics of broadcloth, linen, cotton and wool.